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Pictures from the book MINE EYES HAVE SEEN;bearing witness to the struggle for civil rights

Angel, Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood,  Brooklyn,  New York City.  1962
Angel, Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood, Brooklyn, New York City. 1962
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Payback: Dramatizing their rage at the city’s neglect, residents of the Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood dump their street refuse on the steps of Brooklyn Borough Hall, New York City.  1963
Payback: Dramatizing their rage at the city’s neglect, residents of the Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood dump their street refuse on the steps of Brooklyn Borough Hall, New York City. 1963
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Stop action: Determined to end unfair hiring practices, two protestors put their lives on the line, closing down a construction site at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City. 1963
Stop action: Determined to end unfair hiring practices, two protestors put their lives on the line, closing down a construction site at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City. 1963
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Stop action: Determined to end unfair hiring practices, two protestors put their lives on the line, closing down a construction site at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City.  1963
Stop action: Determined to end unfair hiring practices, two protestors put their lives on the line, closing down a construction site at the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City. 1963
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Pieta, the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City.  1963
Pieta, the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City. 1963
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No matches, no matter:  a construction site,  New York City.  1968
No matches, no matter: a construction site, New York City. 1968
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White Knights defend their White Castle as picketers outside demand fair employment practices, Bronx, New York City.  1963
White Knights defend their White Castle as picketers outside demand fair employment practices, Bronx, New York City. 1963
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Stand back: a segregated movie theater, Tallahassee, Florida.  1964
Stand back: a segregated movie theater, Tallahassee, Florida. 1964
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“It’s dues time. Activist Bob Gore is being trailed by a mob. The Freedom Walkers are about to be arrested at the Alabama state line simply for walking on the side of the road.”


Freedom Walkers retrace the route of a slain black postman, Highway 11 near the Georgia-Alabama border.  1963
“It’s dues time. Activist Bob Gore is being trailed by a mob. The Freedom Walkers are about to be arrested at the Alabama state line simply for walking on the side of the road.” Freedom Walkers retrace the route of a slain black postman, Highway 11 near the Georgia-Alabama border. 1963
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All-night vigil at the 1964 Democratic National Convention,   Atlantic City,   New Jersey.  1964
All-night vigil at the 1964 Democratic National Convention, Atlantic City, New Jersey. 1964
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Innocent bystander arrested, Birmingham,  Alabama. June, 1963.
Innocent bystander arrested, Birmingham, Alabama. June, 1963.
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Picketer under arrest behind Loveman's department store, where the protest concerned unfair hiring practices. Birmingham, Alabama. Spring of1963.

Birmingham was a turning point. It was the first time the Movement took on such a large city. King called it the most segregated city in America. The Klan's penchant for resolving racial conflicts with dynamite earned the city the nickname Bombingham.
Picketer under arrest behind Loveman's department store, where the protest concerned unfair hiring practices. Birmingham, Alabama. Spring of1963. Birmingham was a turning point. It was the first time the Movement took on such a large city. King called it the most segregated city in America. The Klan's penchant for resolving racial conflicts with dynamite earned the city the nickname Bombingham.
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Demonstrators behind bars in a paddy wagon, Birmingham, Alabama.  1963
Demonstrators behind bars in a paddy wagon, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963
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ÒThe police had contained the demonstrations to the black part of town. But by filling the jails, the protestors immobilized the police Ñ and the next wave of demonstrators could peacefully protest for the first time in downtown Birmingham. The jails were flooded, the city was paralyzed and the white leadership realized it had to come to the bargaining table.Ó  1963
ÒThe police had contained the demonstrations to the black part of town. But by filling the jails, the protestors immobilized the police Ñ and the next wave of demonstrators could peacefully protest for the first time in downtown Birmingham. The jails were flooded, the city was paralyzed and the white leadership realized it had to come to the bargaining table.Ó 1963
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During a mass meeting at the 16th Street Baptist Church, King urges his supporters to join the demonstrations,  Birmingham,  Alabama.  1963
During a mass meeting at the 16th Street Baptist Church, King urges his supporters to join the demonstrations, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963
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Improv prisons: High school student demonstrators are detained in a sports stadium,  Birmingham,  Alabama.
1963
Improv prisons: High school student demonstrators are detained in a sports stadium, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963
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Hell, no!: A downed onlooker rises up enraged,   Birmingham,  Alabama.  1963
Hell, no!: A downed onlooker rises up enraged, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963
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Demonstrators hold on to one another to face the spray, Kelly Ingram Park,  Birmingham,  Alabama.  1963

“The force of the spray from the fire hose was so powerful that it peeled the bark off the trees. Protestors skidded along the grass, propelled by the torrent.”
Demonstrators hold on to one another to face the spray, Kelly Ingram Park, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963 “The force of the spray from the fire hose was so powerful that it peeled the bark off the trees. Protestors skidded along the grass, propelled by the torrent.”
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No man is an island,  Kelly Ingram Park,  Birmingham, Alabama.  1963


The police and firemen used a brute show of force to try to stop the ongoing demonstrations. It didnÕt work on this day. Rather than fleeing, the protestors hung on to each other and were able to stand up to the full fury of
the water, though not without casualties. I have never witnessed such cruelty. There was almost as much moisture behind the lens as in front. I gave a print of this picture to Dr. King. He studied it and said, ÔI am startled that out of so much pain some beauty came.
No man is an island, Kelly Ingram Park, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963 The police and firemen used a brute show of force to try to stop the ongoing demonstrations. It didnÕt work on this day. Rather than fleeing, the protestors hung on to each other and were able to stand up to the full fury of the water, though not without casualties. I have never witnessed such cruelty. There was almost as much moisture behind the lens as in front. I gave a print of this picture to Dr. King. He studied it and said, ÔI am startled that out of so much pain some beauty came.
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Beloved community, Kelly Ingram Park, Birmingham, Alabama.  1963


“‘If you don’t bear the cross, you can’t wear the crown’ was the loving spirit that animated the Movement. In Birmingham, the protestors clearly earned their crowns. The use of fire hoses and dogs backfired. City officials lost control of themselves, of the protests and of segregation. What happened in Birmingham provoked John Kennedy to denounce segregation — the first U.S. president to do so —  and to urge its legal ban. The drama that unfolded in Birmingham proved to be a triumphant moment for the ideals of non-violent social change.”
Beloved community, Kelly Ingram Park, Birmingham, Alabama. 1963 “‘If you don’t bear the cross, you can’t wear the crown’ was the loving spirit that animated the Movement. In Birmingham, the protestors clearly earned their crowns. The use of fire hoses and dogs backfired. City officials lost control of themselves, of the protests and of segregation. What happened in Birmingham provoked John Kennedy to denounce segregation — the first U.S. president to do so — and to urge its legal ban. The drama that unfolded in Birmingham proved to be a triumphant moment for the ideals of non-violent social change.”
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Redemption: Protestor demands the promise of full equality promised in the 13, 14, and, 15th amendments at the assembly at the Washington Monument.  Washington, D.C. August 28, 1963.
Redemption: Protestor demands the promise of full equality promised in the 13, 14, and, 15th amendments at the assembly at the Washington Monument. Washington, D.C. August 28, 1963.
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ÒIt was a vast outpouring of support, with 250,000 protestors from all walks of life peacefully gathered in Washington to demand that the president and Congress enact into law the nationÕs long-deferred promises of full equality. Hopes were high, there was great exuberance, a deep sense of purpose and, after Birmingham, the feeling that victory was in the air.Ó 1963
ÒIt was a vast outpouring of support, with 250,000 protestors from all walks of life peacefully gathered in Washington to demand that the president and Congress enact into law the nationÕs long-deferred promises of full equality. Hopes were high, there was great exuberance, a deep sense of purpose and, after Birmingham, the feeling that victory was in the air.Ó 1963
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Marching along side the reflecting pool, protestors en route to the Lincoln Memorial with the Washington Monument and Capital Dome in the backround. Washington, D.C. August 28, 1963.
Marching along side the reflecting pool, protestors en route to the Lincoln Memorial with the Washington Monument and Capital Dome in the backround. Washington, D.C. August 28, 1963.
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Marchers en route to the Lincoln Memorial, Washington,  D.C.  1963
Marchers en route to the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. 1963
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Above: Leaders including the Reverend Ralph Abernathy (far left) and National Urban League Director Whitney Young Jr. (left) join King to pledge allegiance at the beginning of the ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington,  1963
Above: Leaders including the Reverend Ralph Abernathy (far left) and National Urban League Director Whitney Young Jr. (left) join King to pledge allegiance at the beginning of the ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, 1963
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Marchers en route to the Lincoln Memorial,  Washington, D.C.  1963
Marchers en route to the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. 1963
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The Dreamer dreams: King ends his speech with the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”   Washington,  D.C.  1963
The Dreamer dreams: King ends his speech with the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” Washington, D.C. 1963
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Amen, brother: enthusiastic march participants as King speaks, Washington, D.C.  1963-


“As King made his urgent call to the nation for action, spontaneously chanting his never-to-be-forgotten dream, his plea was answered by a rising crescendo of roars, cheers and thunderous clapping. By the power and urgency of his appeal, the mass and unity of his supporters, you just knew ‘His truth is marching on.’”
Amen, brother: enthusiastic march participants as King speaks, Washington, D.C. 1963- “As King made his urgent call to the nation for action, spontaneously chanting his never-to-be-forgotten dream, his plea was answered by a rising crescendo of roars, cheers and thunderous clapping. By the power and urgency of his appeal, the mass and unity of his supporters, you just knew ‘His truth is marching on.’”
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Rosa Parks, an honored guest at the march,  Washington,   D.C.  1963
Rosa Parks, an honored guest at the march, Washington, D.C. 1963
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Hard stare: A young woman penned in by Sheriff Jim Clark’s posse glares as her fellow demonstrators chant, “No more Jim Clark over me,”  Selma,  Alabama.  1965
Hard stare: A young woman penned in by Sheriff Jim Clark’s posse glares as her fellow demonstrators chant, “No more Jim Clark over me,” Selma, Alabama. 1965
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King leads the singing of ÒWe Shall OvercomeÓ after eulogizing a slain civil rights crusader, the Reverend James Reeb, Brown Chapel,  Selma,  Alabama.  1965
King leads the singing of ÒWe Shall OvercomeÓ after eulogizing a slain civil rights crusader, the Reverend James Reeb, Brown Chapel, Selma, Alabama. 1965
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Answering King’s call for support from the religious community, nuns join the protests,  Selma,  Alabama 1965
Answering King’s call for support from the religious community, nuns join the protests, Selma, Alabama 1965
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King is exultant after a federal judge, Frank Johnson, rules that the Selma-to-Montgomery march can proceed, Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
King is exultant after a federal judge, Frank Johnson, rules that the Selma-to-Montgomery march can proceed, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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Glory bound: King and his wife, Coretta, lead the marchers on Jefferson Davis Highway en route to Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
Glory bound: King and his wife, Coretta, lead the marchers on Jefferson Davis Highway en route to Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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Crossing over: King leads the Montgomery-bound marchers over the Edmund Pettus Bridge, which was already famous for shocking scenes of police brutality,   Selma,  Alabama.  1965
Crossing over: King leads the Montgomery-bound marchers over the Edmund Pettus Bridge, which was already famous for shocking scenes of police brutality, Selma, Alabama. 1965
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Eyes on the prize: King in a quiet moment during the march to Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
Eyes on the prize: King in a quiet moment during the march to Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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Marchers on the road to Montgomery, as their ranks swell to an eventual 25,000 strong.  1965
Marchers on the road to Montgomery, as their ranks swell to an eventual 25,000 strong. 1965
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“With helicopters whirring above and the 54 miles of highway closely guarded by U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard, the march into the Cradle of the Confederacy, Montgomery, was the greatest display of the power of the people’s right to peacefully petition since Gandhi’s Salt March to the sea. King’s ultimate faith in American justice was rewarded by the military’s
protection, by President Johnson’s vow that ‘we shall overcome’ and by Johnson’s call for passage of a voting rights bill.”  1965
“With helicopters whirring above and the 54 miles of highway closely guarded by U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard, the march into the Cradle of the Confederacy, Montgomery, was the greatest display of the power of the people’s right to peacefully petition since Gandhi’s Salt March to the sea. King’s ultimate faith in American justice was rewarded by the military’s protection, by President Johnson’s vow that ‘we shall overcome’ and by Johnson’s call for passage of a voting rights bill.” 1965
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“King broke into a grin as he entered the city limits of Montgomery. Some of the obstacles he had overcome had to be on his mind.”


The marchers unfurl their flags, preparing to parade through the city,  Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
“King broke into a grin as he entered the city limits of Montgomery. Some of the obstacles he had overcome had to be on his mind.” The marchers unfurl their flags, preparing to parade through the city, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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Sheriff Jim Clark flashes his famous ÒNeverÓ button, Selma,  Alabama.  1965
Sheriff Jim Clark flashes his famous ÒNeverÓ button, Selma, Alabama. 1965
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Hecklers along the road during the Selma to Montgomery March, Selma Highway,  Alabama.1965
Hecklers along the road during the Selma to Montgomery March, Selma Highway, Alabama.1965
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A car drives by on the Selma Highway while marchers take a break on the side of the road.  1965
A car drives by on the Selma Highway while marchers take a break on the side of the road. 1965
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Leading a throng of 25,000 marchers, King enters the downtown, Montgomery, Alabama.  1965
Leading a throng of 25,000 marchers, King enters the downtown, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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The marchers are cheered by workers at a cab stand that was one of the bulwarks of the Montgomery bus boycott ten years earlier, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
The marchers are cheered by workers at a cab stand that was one of the bulwarks of the Montgomery bus boycott ten years earlier, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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King gazes out at the crowd then prepares his speech, Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
King gazes out at the crowd then prepares his speech, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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King gazes out at the crowd then prepares his speech, Montgomery,  Alabama.  1965
King gazes out at the crowd then prepares his speech, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
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Officers guard the entrance of the state capitol, on whose steps Jefferson Davis took the oath of office as president of the Confederacy, Montgomery, Alabama.  1965
Officers guard the entrance of the state capitol, on whose steps Jefferson Davis took the oath of office as president of the Confederacy, Montgomery, Alabama. 1965
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King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
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King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
King speaks to the crowd, Montgomery, Alabama.1965
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